In the time of 15th to 16th century India controlled the world’s 25% of GDP. At the time of 1947 Britishers filled India with poverty, famines and impoverishment. But UK refuses to take the responsibilities about that.
According to a research , 49% of Britishers think that colonization by the Britishers were ‘not’ very beneficial for them.
Historian Niall Ferguson and UK’s former PM David Cameron claimed that colonization of India was very costly and had to invest lots of money. They also said that they just wanted to educate the uncivilized Eastern and African countries. They claimed this things according to the Theory of “White Man’s Burden” .
But the truth was different, they just came to India just for plundering and loot.
In 2018’s Columbia University press India’s well known economist and historian Utsa Patnaik published a research ,where she completely rejected the moral claims by the Britishers.
According to the two centuries (1764-1938) tax records and trade databases Britain looted almost 45 trillion dollars from India. That is UK and India’s 17 times combined GDP of nowadays.
Dr. Sashi Tharoor tells the Oxford University , “Why Britain owes reparations for colonizing India” in a viral speech. He beautifully described how Britain gained so much profit by looting India in his book “Inglorious Empire“(2017). And also told the British PM Winston Churchill ” The Worst Genocidal Dictators of that time“.
Exploitative Trade System:-
Britishers’ main method to loot India was “Exploitative Trade System“. In 1600 AD East India Company came India with a Royal message by Queen Elizabeth .By fighting with the Dutch and Portuguese they first anchored on Surat in 1608 AD. They started to build up factories in Surat, Masulipatnam, Madras, Bombay and Bengal. East India Company imports goods and textiles from the merchants by giving them golds and silvers and they sell them at high profit in Europe and other countries.
But their intentions were different, in 1764 AD, after the battle of Buxar East India Company acquired revenue collection rights in Bengal first ,and thereafter got it extended across the subcontinent systematically. Once they got revenue collections rights, their revenue generated by the company only to buy the Indian goods causing massive exploration of Indian people. Which goods they were buying by golds and silvers now they are getting them at free of cost and sell them at much higher rates and earns massive profits these days. Because of the tax collectors and the goods buying agents were different , Indian merchants got fooled by them day by day.
Britishers used the massive profits gained by the East India Company to buy strategic raw materials such as iron and timber to fuel up their own ‘Industrial Revolution’ back in britain. That helps them to boost their industrial revolution these days .So, we can say that Britain’s industrial revolution was totally based on the colonial theft in India.
Back in 1858 AD, when the monopoly of East India Company ended ,Indian merchants and the producers can export their goods as well. But the British traders used to pay the Indian exporters in “Special Council Bills” rather than gold or silvers, that was a type of check. But these bills were paid back in the country with the revenue collected from India.
Unfair trade system:-
There was another organized loot ,the unfair trade system. At the time of 17th century Indian textile industry was so much flourished .India’s hand made silk clothes were so popular and on demand in UK and European markets these days. But the industrial revolution in Britain produced large volumes of cheaper machine-made clothes. In a bid to promote British clothes, Britain imposed heavy duties on Indian imported textiles to making them heavily un-competitive in Britain as compared to Indian clothes. So demands of Indian handloom clothes were decreased day by day .The unfair trade system of Britain destroyed the Indian traditional textile sector and caused “Deindustrialization” on Indian economy.
Indian resources to finance wars:-
Britain used Indian revenue to accomplish their colonial invasion rather than to use it for development in India. They used that revenue to invade in China and also used it to expand their capitalist agenda in Europe, Canada and Australia.
The economic drain of 45 trillion dollars from India to Britain is just an ‘indicative figure’ as it does not take into account the rampant exploration of India’s human resources in form of ‘indentured labourers’ by the British. They left the labourer on the basis on fraudulent contracts in the foreign plantations, like figi, Caribbean islands.
During the entire 200 years of British colonialism the Indian economy kept shrinking. In the 2nd half of the 19th century , India’s national income was almost collapsed to its half. The life expectancy also came down 1/5th between 1870 to 1920.
British policies also caused massive famines in Bengal causing deaths of more than 40 lakh Indians in total.
Britain was totally responsible for the destruction and the loses of Indian economy and the locals of India. Britain is not in that situation to bring back the 45 trillion dollars of money but they can take the responsibilities what they have done to India.
At the end we can say that , the Britain became “The Great Britain ” because of India.